The repetition of similar vowel sounds， especially in poetry. Assonance is often employed to please the ear or emphasize certain sounds.
It refers to the repetition of identical or similar consomants in neighboring words whose vowel sounds are different in a line of poetry.
138. Free Verse（自由体诗歌）
Free verse means the rhymed or unrhymed poetry composed without paying attention to conventional rules of meter.
2> free verse was originated by a group of French poets of the late 19th century.
3>their purpose was to free themselves from the restrictions of formal metrical patterns and to recreate instead the free rhythms of natural speech.
4>Walt Whitman‘s leaves of grass is， perhaps， the most notable example.
Symbol means an act ，a person， a thing， or a spectacle that stands for something else， usually something less palpable than the named symbol.2>the relationship between the symbol and its referent is not often one of simple equivalence. Allegorical symbols usually express a neater equivalence with what they stand for than the symbols found in modern realistic fiction.
Theme means t he unifying point or general idea of a literary work.
2>it provides an answer to such question as “what is the work about”3>each literary work carries its own theme or themes.
141. First-person narrative（第一人称小说）
First person narrative is also called first person point of view. Which is used in the analysis and criticism of fiction of describe the way in which the writer presents the reader with the materials of the story.
142. Harlem Renaissance（哈姆莱复兴）
Harlem Renaissance refers to a period of outstanding literary vigor and creativity that occurred in the United states during the 1920s.
2> the Harlem Renaissance changed the images of literature created by many black and white American writers. New black images were no longer obedient and docile. Instead they showed a new confidence and racial pride.
3> the center of this movement was the vast black ghetto of Harlem. In New York City.
4> the leading figures are Langston Hughes， James W. Johnson、etc
143. Black humor（黑色幽默）
Black humor is also known as black comedy. It is a kind of writing that places grotesque elements side by side with humorous ones in an attempt to shock the reader， forcing him or her to laugh at the horrifying reality of a disordered world. it is humor out of despair and laughter out of tears.
2> black humor conveys anguish and fury at conditions in which institutionalized absurdity gets the upper hand. It intends to satirize hypocrisy， materialism， racial prejudice， and above all， the dehumanization of the inspanidual by a modern society. Black humor prevails in Modern American literature.
144. Theatre of the Absurd（荒谬剧）
The absurd is a kind of drama that explains an existential ideology and presents a view of the absurdity of the human condition by the abandoning of usual or rational devices and the use of nonrealistic form.
2>the most original playwright of the theater of absurd is Samuel beckett， who wrote about human beings living a meaningless life in a alien， decaying world.
Darwinism is a term that comes from Charles Darwin‘s evolutionary theory.
2> Darwinists think that those who survive in the world are the fittest and those who fail to adapt themselves to the environment will perish. They believe that man has evolved from lower forms of life. Humans are special not because God created them in his image. But because they have successfully adapted to changing genetically.
3> influenced by this theory， some American naturalist writers apply Darwinism as an explanation of human nature and social reality.
146. American Dream（美国梦）
American Dream refers to the dream of material success. In which one， regardless of social status， acquires wealth and gains success by working hard and good luck.
2> in literature， the theme of American Dream recurs in The Great Gatsby comes from the west to the east with the dream of material success. the novel tells the shattering of American Dream rather than its success.
A term coined by French critic J.P. Sartre. It refers to any experimental work of fiction that avoids certain traditional elements of novel-writing like the analysis of characters‘ states of mind.
2> the anti-novel usually fragments and distorts the experience of its characters， forcing the reader to construct the reality of the story from a disordered narrative.
Vorticism is a short-lived 20th century art movement related to futurism. Its members sought to simplify forms into machinelike angularity.
Metafiction， fiction about fiction； or more especially a kind of fiction that openly comments on its own fiction status. The term is normally used for works that involve a significant degree of self-consciousness about themselves as fictions， in ways that go beyond occasional apologetic addresses to the reader. A notable modern example is john fowler‘s The French lieutenant’s woman， in which fowles interrupts the narrative to explain his procedures， and offers the reader alternative endings.
It is a mocking imitation of the style of a literary work or works， ridiculing the stylistic habits of an author or school by exaggerated mimicry， parody is related to burlesque in its application of serious styles to ridiculous subjects， to satire in its punishment of eccentricities， and even to criticism in its analysis of style. In English， two of the leading parodists are Henry Fielding and James Joyce.